Role of Insulin In the field of biotechnology.
In Berlin, 1869, a biotechnology medical student discovered a unique looking cell while watching the labyrinth under the microscope. It was later discovered what they were doing. They regulate blood sugar. These disorders lead to diabetes. Sugar controls the hormone, a protein that produces these cells. This protein was first called ieltene and then insulin.
After his identification, the pursuit of him began. For the first time in 1921, Banting and Best obtained a few micrograms of insulin from dozens of kilograms of cows. Experienced on diabetic children, this hormone quickly restored blood sugar levels and stopped their thirst. But working with this hormone was very difficult. There was no solution. Heat was damaged, unstable and thick. In 1953 it was found that the amino acids are made of it. Fred Sanger discovered that it was made of two chains. One long, the other short. There is a chemical bond between them and it is U-shaped. Such as a finger and a thumb. A protein that regulates metabolism of sugar by rotating the nib and dial.
Boyer was successful in genetic editing. He founded a company called Genen Tech in 1976 for genetic engineering. They wanted to build this molecule. They did not know which gene in humans produced it. They extracted the method of decoding it from amino acids and DNA mapping. The DNA code could be extracted from it, inserted into the bacterial genes, and these bacteria could be used as an insulin factory. If that were possible, they would have developed clinical medicine through the most demanding molecular bacteria.
Insulin was a complex molecule. Before heading to Mount Everest, there was another mountain to head. One chain was made of 31 amino acids, the other 20. Somatostatin was previously selected, another protein that was simple and contained 14 amino acids. If it were made it would be possible to make insulin in this way.
The first biotechnology company, Jinan Tech, was a team of four people in one room. By June 1977 it had assembled a gene component to form somatostatin, which was successfully inserted into the bacterial plasmid. Changed bacteria were growing bridges. The team gathered in the lab in the morning. Detector looked at whether somatosin was born. Absolutely silent. The amount of somatostatin was zero. It seemed that these microbes were resisting one another against human slavery. This experiment was unsuccessful. It is estimated that this protein breaks down before the bacteria get out.
Now the next tactic is used. It was meant to betray the bacteria. Instead of placing the gene in a separate plasmid, the bacteria were placed with their own gene. The bacteria will be making bacterial protein by itself while at the same time becoming human protein. This was done in three months. In August 1977, the team met for the second time. All the nervous stands were watching the results as the detector started to sound. Somatostatin was ready. Human proteins were prepared from bacteria.
The next competition was to make insulin, on which another team from the University of California in San Francisco was working. The competition was between a small business and a large university.
Janine Tech had a breakthrough in May 1978, when they developed insulin chains. Insulin was added to the test tube late at night on August 21, 1978, for the first time. Getting it patented was a long and new debate. Inputs are new chemicals that are patented, while insulin was a natural chemical. How can it be patented? Lawyers solved it after a great deal of trouble. The process to do this was patented. The patent was approved in October 1982, one of the most profitable and controversial patents in the history of technology.
Insulin was the major milestone in the biotechnology industry. The treatment was started with gene cloning technology.
Justin Tech listed the company on the stock exchange on October 14, 1980. It was the most successful offering of any technology company in history at that time. Within a few hours, $ 2.5 million had come to the company. Previously, insulin was obtained naturally from the pancreas of cows and pigs. The drug obtained in this new way was named homoline. Its annual sales were $ 8 million in 1983, $ 90 million in 1996 and $ 700 million annually in 1998.
Janine Tech created HGH in 1982 to treat Dwarfism. Immune protein for blood cancer 1986. The following year, TPA is used for stroke or heart attack. Every breakthrough was a great introduction to technology. (Bacteria could not be used for large molecules. This led to crabs and mice). Vaccines containing hepatitis B vaccine in 1990 In December 1990, it sold its shares for more than $ 2 billion.
In 2001, Jenin Tech created the world’s largest center for biotech research, consisting of an acre glass building. Its founder, who received only $ 1 million worth of investment